application of microwave heating

Chapman and Hall, London (1980), Bhatnagar, A., Hogland, W., Marques, M., Sillanpää, M.: An overview of the modification methods of activated carbon for its water treatment applications. FT-IR/PAS spectra of examined samples in the 3500–2000 cm− 1 range, FT-IR/PAS spectra of examined samples in the 1400–400 cm− 1 range. A series of modified carbonaceous materials has been obtained via nitrogenation, oxidation and thermal treatment of peat-based activated carbons with the use of microwave heating.

In order to fully characterize the obtained materials except for obvious ash content analysis, elemental composition of the starting and modified activated carbons, characterization of the pore structure and pH measurements, coupled method TG/MS (thermogravimetry/mass spectroscopy) and photoacoustic spectroscopy was used. Bellamy, L.J. A stainless steel cup (diameter 10 mm) was filled with sample (thickness < 6 mm).

3, 4). manufacturer’s recommendations for the use of. Chem.

10), but only in AT, AH and AN samples spectra. Microwave Heating Applications in Mineral Processing, 5. The bands below 1050 cm− 1 may also have inorganic compounds contribution (i.e. In the case of other samples, the peak of CO2 is inverse (2400–2300 cm− 1) and there is no peak visible at ~ 680 cm− 1.

The above-discussed results have proved that, application of different variants of peat-based activated carbon, such as oxidation, nitrogenation and high temperature treatment with the use of microwave energy, allows to produce a wide panoply of carbonaceous materials, differing significantly in the type of porous structure, chemical composition as well as acid-base character of surface.

In turn, the AT sample, received by means of annealing of starting activated carbon in nitrogen atmosphere is characterised by the highest content (0.93 mmol/g) and simultaneously the greatest prevalence of basic functional groups (almost five times) over acidic ones, what is also confirmed by very high pH value (10.57). Correspondence to How does wattage affect microwave cooking?

At one, microwaved. 3 and 4 it can be certainly stated that the sample AH has the lowest thermal stability. They have medium-developed surface area ranging from 582 to 657 m2/g and porous structure with dominant mesopores. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10450-019-00017-5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10450-019-00017-5, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in CAS  Int. The intensities of those peaks are the lowest in the case of A and AU samples. 219, 499–511 (2013), Article  313, 352–359 (2014), Gomez-Serrano, V., Piriz-Almeida, F., Duran-Valle, C.J., Pastor-Villegas, J.: Formation of oxygen structures by air activation. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. All samples were dried in 115 °C for 48 h. As follow from the data presented in Table 1 the starting peat-based activated carbon is characterised by very high Cdaf content (94.3 wt%), relatively high amount of mineral matter (7.5 wt%) and small admixture of non-carbon organic components, mainly oxygen.

The ash content for all materials under investigation was determined according to the DNS ISO 1171:2002 standard. At the very beginning of the temperature rise, a large mass loss of 3.3 wt% till 190 °C is noticeable (DTG curve maximum recorded at 100 °C). Characterization of the pore structure of activated carbons was based on the nitrogen adsorption–desorption measured at − 196 °C on Autosorb iQ surface area analyser (Quantachrome Instruments, United States). Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. The FT-IR spectra of the samples in the region of C–H and –OH groups are presented in Fig.

To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. 2013). Sci. Total pore volume (Vt) was calculated by converting the amount adsorbed at p/p0 ~ 0.99 to the volume of liquid adsorbate. volume 25, pages327–336(2019)Cite this article. A series of modified carbonaceous materials has been obtained via nitrogenation, oxidation and thermal treatment of peat-based activated carbons with the use of microwave heating. J. Environ. Application of Microwave Heating in Biomass Hydrolysis and Pretreatment for Ethanol Production @inproceedings{Hermiati2010ApplicationOM, title={Application of Microwave Heating in Biomass Hydrolysis and Pretreatment for Ethanol Production}, author={Euis Hermiati and D. Mangunwidjaja and … J. Chem. Technol. Appl. Microwave Hydrothermal and Solvothermal Processing of Materials and Compounds, 6. The pH measurement was performed using an pH-meter manufactured by Metrohm Ion Analysis (Switzerland), equipped in combined glass pH electrode with temperature sensor (Unitrode Pt1000), calibrated with standards solutions of pH 3, 7 and 10. Medical Science: Microwave's heating properties are also used in Medical Science. Eng.

Application of microwave heating in the preparation of functionalized activated carbons, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10450-019-00017-5. By Masaru Watanabe, Xinhua Qi, Taku M. Aida and Richard Lee Smith, Jr. By Mulpuri V. Rao, Jayna J. Shah, Jon Geist and Michael Gaitan. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. PubMed Google Scholar. These ions are most likely responsible for the presence of the following groups: CHO, CH3CN, NCO(+H). Some assignments are nevertheless possible. Institutions and companies, registered as VAT taxable entities in their own EU member state, will not pay VAT by providing IntechOpen with their VAT registration number. 5 shows. All the modifications were carried out in a porcelain crucibles heated by microwave muffle furnace Phoenix, provided by CEM Corporation (United States). There are also some other applications of heating property of microwave such as Drying, Precooking and Moisture Leveling. University of Science and Technology Beijing, China. A. Harrison, A.G. Whittaker, in Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II, 2003. Depending on the procedure of modification, the final products were activated carbons of medium developed surface area ranging from 582 to 657 m2/g, showing basic or intermediate acidic-basic character of the surface and different content of surface functional groups varying from 0.57 to 1.28 mmol/g. 9. As follows from the course of pore size distribution curves presented in Fig. Małgorzata Gil.

Temperature distribution of ions m: 29, 41, 42, 43 for sample AH. Based on thermal analysis it was shown, that sample annealed in nitrogen atmosphere is the most thermally stable material. 1 and 2, all the samples under investigation show very similar textural parameters, independent on variant of modification. 2015; Nowicki 2016; Ternero-Hidalgo et al. Figures 5 and 6 shows the changes of intensity of ions m:17 and m:18 which are responsible to the presence of hydroxyl groups and water.

: Some aspects of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other carbons. Ibrahim, A.H. El-Ghorab, K.F. 2, the main contribution in the porous structure of carbons studied have mesopores with diameters in the range between 3 and 12 nm. Data 63(8), 2914–2920 (2018), Ternero-Hidalgo, J.J., Rosas, J.M., Palomo, J., Valero-Romero, M.J., Rodríguez-Mirasol, J., Cordero, T.: Functionalization of activated carbons by HNO3 treatment: Influence of phosphorus surface groups.

Microwave Applications in Thermal Food Processing, 2.

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of starch from cassava, Development of Functional Sago (sabudana) using Cassava Based Dry Starch. Other variants of thermo-chemical treatment cause a slight increase in the Cdaf contribution and slight changes in the content of hydrogen and heteroatoms. Calorim.

For that reason, directions may advise to let a. bezeichneten Stoffe haben sich in den 1990er Jahren stark erweitert, was u. a. auf die Entwicklung effizienter Nachweismethoden zurückzuführen ist. Annealing of the activated carbon in nitrogen atmosphere at 900 °C or oxidation with 25% solution of nitric acid followed by heat treatment at 600 °C enhance the thermal stability of carbonaceous structure, whereas the oxidation with 30% solution of hydrogen peroxide followed by heat treatment at 600 °C diminishes it. This process is most effective in case of AN and AT samples, for which the micropore contribution in total pore volume is by 7 and 4% higher than for unmodified carbon. These modes are coupled with other vibrations and do not exhibit well defined group frequencies (Bellamy 1980). Electrochim. Such materials can be used not only as adsorbents of gaseous and liquid impurities, but also as catalyst, catalysts supports as well as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors and lithium-ion batteries (Huang et al. This is made possible by the EU reverse charge method. Based on data collected in Fig. 136, 866–873 (2006), Article  When discussing thermal stability, one should take into account the changes that occur at the beginning of the temperature rise. This is most probably a consequence of high temperature of annealing (900 °C), which favours formation of greater amount of functional groups of basic nature as well as leads to a decomposition of the majority of acidic groups present on carbon surface. The intense band in the 2400–2300 cm− 1 range indicates the presence of the carbonization product, namely carbon dioxide, which is probably trapped in the carbon structure and not removed during drying. Google Scholar, Boehm, H.P.

After that the obtained char was subjected to physical activation with steam at 800 °C, for 60 min. 166, 1039–1043 (2011), Nowicki, P., Kazmierczak, J., Sawicka, K., Pietrzak, R.: Nitrogen-enriched activated carbons prepared by the activation of coniferous tree sawdust and their application in the removal of nitrogen dioxide. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. In those applications, microwave heating demonstrates significant advantages over conventional methods in reduced processing time and less environmental impacts. J.

Average pore diameter (D) was calculated from equation D = 4Vt/SBET. These fields interact with the food, leading to heat generation and a rise in temperature. Microwave heating, different from heat convection or heat conduction, can heat samples internally regardless of the physical contact between the microwave source and the sample. Interferograms of 1024 scans were averaged for the spectrum, providing good signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. J. As a monograph, it is designed to be a fundamental reference book, aiming to help the readers to concentrate on the key aspects behind the success in microwave heating.

J. According to the IUPAC classification, the isotherms obtained for all prepared carbons (Fig. 5, 6) by relatively high content of water and hydroxyl groups.

The physicochemical properties of such materials depend in significant degree on the quantity and type of heteroatomic functional groups introduced into the carbon matrix by means of different modification.

Elemental composition of the starting and modified activated carbons was determined using the CHNS Vario EL III analyser (Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH, Germany), whereas the oxygen content was calculated by the difference.

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